TCP/IP Model


In this article we will discuss about TCP/IP model in detail.


The full form of TCP / IP is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). TCP / IP is a protocol of the World Wide Web which is also termed as internet.


The TCP / IP model provides end-to-end communication. It was developed by  department of defence of U.S. in the mid-1970s and 1980s.


This model determines how a particular computer connects to the internet and how the transmission of data held between them. This model helps us to create a virtual network when many computer networks are interconnected. The main purpose of the TCP / IP model is to provide communication over great distances. That is, we can also communicate with the network located at a very distance from it.

Layers of TCP/IP model

There are following four layer of TCP/IP model.

  • Host to Network (Network Access Layer)
  • Internet
  • Transport
  • Application

Host to Network(Network Access Layer)

Network Access Layer is the lowest layer in the TCP / IP model. The network access layer describes how data is sent to the network. This layer is a combination of the data link layer and physical layer defined in the OSI model. This layer is responsible for the transmission of data between two devices in the same network. Protocols which are used in this layer are ethernet, token ring, frame relay etc.


Internet Layer


Internet Layer is located between the transport layer and the application layer. This layer provides wireless communication in the network. In this, the data is packaged as IP datagrams, it contains the datagram source and destination IP address so that the data can be sent and received easily.


Protocols used in Internet Layer


ARP-  Full form of this is address resolution protocol. Its function is to search for physical address from IP address. There are many types of this: - Such as: - RARP, PARP etc.


IP protocol - Full form of this is internet protocol and its main function is to deliver packets from source to destination. It has two versions IPv4 and IPv6. IPV4 is of 4 bytes and IPV6 is of 6 bytes.


ICMP - Full form of this is internet control message protocol. Its task is to inform the host about problems encountered in the network.


Transport Layer 


Transport Layer is responsible for the transmission of data. This layer is located between the application layer and the Internet layer. Transport layer is also responsible for the reliability, flow control and correction of data. Two protocols in this is TCP, UDP.


Application Layer


Application layer is the highest layer in the TCP / IP model. This layer is related to providing network service to applications. This layer provides communication to the user between-Web browser, e-mail, and other applications.

The application layer sends data to the transport layer and receives data from it. The function of this layer is to handle high-level protocols. This layer allows the user to interact with the application.

Protocols used in this layers are given as below


HTTP and HTTPS: - The full form of HTTP is hypertext transfer protocol. Through this we can access the data in internet. It transfers data in the form of text, audio, video. The full name of HTTPS is HTTP-secure. 


SNMP - Its full name is simple network management protocol. It is a framework that is used to manage the devices in the internet.


SMTP - Its full name is simple mail transfer protocol. It is used to send data from one e-mail to another e-mail address.


DNS - Its full name is domain name system. It is used to map IP address.


SSH - Its full name is Secure Shell. It is used for encryption.


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